Antiretroviral Drug Resistance in a Respondent-Driven Sample of HIV-Infected MSM in Brazil
Antiretroviral Drug Resistance in a Respondent-Driven Sample of HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men in Brazil
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes:
15 August 2011 – Volume 57 – Issue – pp S186-S192
Authors: Bermúdez-Aza, Elkin Hernan MD, MSc*; Kerr, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo MD, PhD†; Kendall, Carl PhD‡; Pinho, Adriana Araujo MSc§; de Mello, Maeve Brito PhD‖; Mota, Rosa Salani MSc†; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland PhD¶; Alencar, Cecilia Salete MSc*‖‖‖; de Brito, Ana Maria PhD***; Dourado, Ines Costa PhD††; da Batista, Sonia Maria Batista MSc‡‡; Abreu, Fabiano BSc§§; de Oliveira, Lisangela Cristina MSc‖‖; de Souza Moraes, Adão MSc¶¶; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz MD, PhD***; Merchan-Hamann, Edgar MD, PhD†††; de Freitas, Gisele Maria Brandão MD, MSc‡‡‡; McFarland, Willi MD, PhD§§§; Albuquerque, Elizabeth PhD§; Rutherford, George W MD, MSc§§§; Sabino, Ester MD, PhD*‖‖‖
MATERIALS AND METHODS
We conducted a cross-sectional study using RDS in nine Brazilian cities located in all five macroregions of the country designated by the Ministry of Health for a population-based national evaluation: Manaus (north), Recife and Salvador (northeast), Campo Grande (central west), Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro, and Santos (southeast), and Itajaí and Curitiba (south) as shown in Figure 1. In brief, the RDS methods followed standardized protocols developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for behavioral surveillance. In each city, several study-eligible seeds are selected who recruit up to three other MSM and so on until the sample size is met and equilibrium is achieved on key variables. The recruitment began in October 2008 and ended in July 2009. The overall sample included 3515 men who reported having sex with another man in the last 12 months, were 18 years of age or older, and resided in one of the nine cities.